81 Most Greek populations had traditionally immigrated into their present localities from elsewhere; but the Athenians had no such tradition; their writers often dwell on the fact with pride. A spirit watches from the trees as Orleanna, Rachel, Leah, and Adah walk through a market. 68 Silver, lead, and perhaps copper mines in Attica, from which the state drew an annual revenue. Other video courses by Roman Roads Media include: Grammar of Poetry featuring Matt Whitling Xerxes is urged to stay home even if the army goes; Mardonius is challenged to stake his sons' lives on the outcome (10). Numbers of Xerxes' army: over five million, half of them combatants (185-86). 2. 1.7, is Heracles' grandson. Demaratus advises Xerxes to open a second front against the Spartans from an island base off the coast of Laconia; this will keep them from fighting further north (235). Xerxes could claim descent from both, in virtue of his mother Atossa, Cyrus' daughter; hence perhaps the confusion. Then he details a specific story about Candaules. 48 The exiled king of Sparta; see Hdt. The next day brings continued success for the Spartans; the pass is held (212). Now he completes the story. Xerxes addresses the council of Persian leaders, and states his reasons for invading Greece: revenge, gain, living up to the glorious Persian tradition. Delays in Macedonia; the ambassadors sent to demand surrender return to Xerxes (131). A prize is offered to the general who produces the best troops (8). Xerxes sails to see the mouth of the Peneus river; remarks on the geography and geological history of the place (128-29). Argos refuses (149). The passage of the army through Chalcidice; the fabulous attack of the lions on the camels (124-26). Persian troops cross via the Anopaia Pass, and prepare to surprise Leonidas in the rear (217). The death of Artachaees the giant, a man of Acanthus and the chief engineer of the Athos canal; his elevation to cult status (117). one were κατὰ ῥόον. 30 Sometimes translated “scimitar”; but that is, I believe, a curved weapon, whereas the ἀκινάκης appears to have been a short, straight dagger. 18 The Daric stater was equivalent to about 22s. Topographical details of Artemisium and Thermopylae (176). Herodotus, The Histories A. D. Godley, Ed. Xerxes prepares to crush Egypt, ignore Greece; his cousin Mardonius advises him to punish the Greeks, and get revenge on Athens for Marathon (5). Further Reading A Note on the Text Maps. ; 69 Arabians and near-Egyptian Ethiopians; 70 Eastern or Libyan Ethiopians; 71 Libyans; 72 Paphlagonians and Cappadocians; 73 Phrygians; 74 Lydians; 75 Thracians; 76 Pisidians? Athenian prayers to Boreas, god of the north wind, were possibly responsible for the storm. 22 Or it may mean, as Stein thinks, that the ships of the upper or N.E. 85 The Carthaginians invaded Sicily with a force drawn from Africa and the western Mediterranean. Gelon's coupe in Gela, and his conquest of Syracuse in 485 B.C. Hdt. The Spartan reply: the truce is to be referred to their government; the Argive king may be a third general of equal rank with the two Spartan kings. Europeans; Darius Fails To Conquer Scythia; Greek Colonies In Libya (Cyrene, Barca); Persia Invades … 116 As a matter of fact Simonides composed all three inscriptions; but the epitaph of Megistias was the only one which he made at his own cost. The Aftermath of Thermopylae. 's decision not to name the native commanders (96). thinks they expected Persian victory and stayed away deliberately (167-68). How the curse was visited upon their sons in 430 B.C. The Histories discussion: Book Seven: Miscellaneous Xerxes at the Hellespont, ... (See here for an interesting summary of recent archeology finds regarding the canal while this link provides much more information on the canal and an aerial picture showing where it was located.) 7.121). 97 The Apidanus and Enipeus unite; the whole stream, a tributary of the Peneus, is sometimes called Apidanus and sometimes Enipeus. dwellers around: neighboring tribes forming a league, and sending representatives (Pylagori) to a conference held twice a year. Description of the secret pass, called Anopaia (215-16). Two other men named by some as traitors are exonerated by Hdt (213-14). 3; they lived on the S.E. The decision is taken to guard the pass of Thermopylae instead (175). A second more favorable oracle mentions the "wooden wall" (141). 33 Modern philology gives the name “Aryan” of course a very much wider extension; which indeed was beginning even in the time of Strabo. Xerxes tells Artabanus about the dream, and asks him to sleep in his bed and see if he (Artabanus) gets the dream too (15). Instead, it crossed the mountains; probably both by a route which runs across the southern slope of Olympus to Gonnus, and also by the Petra pass, further inland, between Olympus and Bermius. Full search 6.77. Thanks for exploring this SuperSummary Study Guide of “Histories” by Herodotus. Series 7 aired 12 half-hour episodes and 3 highlights specials on CBBC. Hdt. 8 i.e. How the Egyptian Pharaoh Psammetichus (c. 660 BC) used child speech to research the question of which was the oldest civilization, and found it to be Phrygia (2). Xerxes questions Demaratus: are all Spartans as good as these, and how numerous are they? The Liberation Trilogy by Rick Atkinson. 2.171. Exhortations of Xerxes to the Persian commanders (53). 39 From a district bordered by Caria, Phrygia, Pisidia, and Lycia. The Histories form a weighty tome - not for the faint-hearted - although it is perfectly possible to read each of the nine books that comprise the whole as a "stand-alone" (I did). 91 διαδέξιον has been otherwise translated, as meaning “of good augury”; Stein derives it rather from διαδέξεσθαι, supposing the meaning to be “a sacrifice where the portions of the victim are handed round among the sacrificers.”. Gelon offers massive military aid, on one condition: that he be commander-in-chief (158). Purchase a copy of this text (not necessarily the same edition) from Herodotus’ Later Reputation. Demaratus explains the Spartan military code: no retreat (104). the Athenians) (51). Heracles, to rid the country of them, carried off two on his back, hanging head downwards, in which position they had every opportunity of observing his title to the above epithet; until their jests on the subject moved him to release them. 89 Herodotus' points of the compass are wrong throughout in his description of Thermopylae; the road runs east and west, not north and south as he supposes; so “west” here should be “south” and “east” “north.” “In front” and “behind” are equivalent to “west” and “east” respectively. 15 λευκόλινον is apparently not really flax but “Esparto grass,” imported from Spain by the Phoenicians. Xerxes sends a message to Greece, demanding surrender (32). 2.86. Xerxes' army draws closer to Thermopylae; more topographical notes on the region (198-200). But most commentators translate “steep your souls in woe.”. 108 The national festival in honor of Apollo, held in September. into Egyptian ethnography (1). What strategy should Xerxes adopt (234)? Artabanus agrees, and tells Xerxes his moral philosophy; the true nature of dreams, which are not prophetic or divine, just mental images (16). 29 Probably what is called Mal-Tepe, on the promontory of Nagara. Hdt. 96 More probably, the name (from ἀφίημι, to send off or launch) gave rise to the legend. Details of the construction of the bridges (36). Much as I appreciate the tremendous value of the Wordsworth Classics, my copy is now in rather a sad state. Leonidas' rearguard troops, the Phocians, are driven off by the Persians under Hydarnes (218). Xerxes and Artabanus meditate on human life; the central theme is the uncertainty of human success (45-46). Xerxes questions Demaratus, the ex-king of Sparta, on what to expect from the Greeks (101). 7.3. Leonidas decides to use Theban troops to test their loyalty (205). 5.97) ten drachmae per head would be only 50 talents; far too small a sum for the building of 200 ships; Herodotus cannot mean more than that the Laurium money was a contribution towards a ship-building fund. A last minute impulse to retreat is quelled by Leonidas (207). Hdt. Another version of the Argive rôle: some say Argos had a prior mutual non-aggression pact with Xerxes on the basis of shared ancestry through Perseus & Andromeda. For a complete discussion see How and Wells, Appendix IV. 93 200 was the usual complement for a Greek trireme—170 rowers, 30 fighters. Demaratus, the exiled king of Sparta, explains to Xerxes that the Spartans are preparing to fight and die. Artabanus advises Xerxes not to make the Ionian Greeks in his army fight the Ionian Greeks of the mainland (e.g. Herodotus The Histories Book One Book Two Book Three Book Four Book Five Book Six Book Seven Book Eight Book Nine. Themes and Colors Key LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in 1984, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. rubbing against the touchstone, which would be stained by pure gold. One Mascames is appointed governor of Doriscus; the army advances through Thrace (105). ... 7 . The Annenberg CPB/Project provided support for entering this text. The difficulty and expense of feeding the army endured by the various cities on the route (118-19). March of the army from Lydia north to Mt. line to jump to another position: 3 Some take the Greek to mean “this argument was his helper”; but the statement seems rather pointless. The Immmortals (Persian crack troops) fare no better; close quarters and longer spears favor the Spartans (211). Ach. Persian troubles with a sunken reef (183). This is the start of the Trojan War. 37 For these see Hdt. 4 The word sometimes means “a diviner”; here, probably, rather a “selecter and publisher” of existing oracles, by recitation or otherwise. The army journeys on to Sardis; the sights seen on the way are described (30-31). The spirit is that of Ruth May but also that of Africa. 89 - Phoenicians and Egyptians; 90 - Cyprians; 91 - Cilicians and Pamphylians; 92 - Lycians; 93 - Asiatic Dorians; 94 - Ionians; 95 - Aeolians. 62 Into which criminals condemned to death were thrown. Homer is cited in justification (161). Traces of it are said to exist. 46 Herodotus generally uses the name “Pelasgian” for the oldest known population of Greece: cp. ; 79 Marians, Colchians, etc. One of Western history’s greatest books springs to life in Tom Holland’s vibrant new translation Herodotus of Halicarnassus—who was hailed by Cicero as “the father of history”—wrote his histories around 440 BC. Marching order and equipment of the Persian army (40-41). 13 It seems fairly clear that there was some sort of movement from the one continent to the other; Herodotus makes it from Asia to Europe; but on the evidence it is just as likely to have been the other way. Command levels by multiples of ten (81). The opinion of Hdt. 25 Probably about the middle of April 480. 58 In eastern Thessaly, west of Pelion. The Corcyraeans allege weather problems, but Hdt. The speech of Mardonius in support of invasion cites Greek weaknesses: racial inferiority of Greeks is shown by prior subjugation of Ionians; inability of Greeks to cooperate with each other; lack of strategic skill in choosing battle sites (9). A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, SuperSummary offers high-quality study guides that feature detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, quotes, and essay topics. Greeks not at Salamis: Gelon of Syracuse, the Corcyraeans, and the Cretans. His hubristic dream of world domination. is that the influence of Xerxes' mother Atossa was critical (3). A storm destroys a number of Persian ships off the coast of Magnesia (188). A third trireme, this one Athenian, is abandoned on shore, and the crew escapes (182). Edessa was the chief town. The The Histories Community Note includes chapter-by-chapter summary and analysis, character list, theme list, historical context, author biography and quizzes written by community members like you. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. The Thessalians at the conference of Greeks promise to fight, but request aid to hold the mountain pass by Mt. 33072 Reviews How the Delphic oracle had predicted the incident, and why Leonidas chose to dismiss the allied troops (219-20). 76 At Hybla, N. of Syracuse, on the E. coast of Sicily. What a long strange trip this has been. (1.1–5) Wow. Cambyses becomes king of the Persian Empire (530-522 BC). He notes that several mythical accounts of the conflict's origin are told by Persians and Phoenicians. Most historians think the real total was at the most 200,000. 54 About three miles above Eion on the Strymon. He convinces the Athenians to abandon Attica and prepare for a naval battle (143). A wealthy Lydian, Pythius, offers Xerxes his entire fortune for the war effort. Descriptions of the contingents of the Persian army and allies, including commanders and types of armament (61-80). 1.142. Anecdote of the grain-ships (146-47). The story of king Croesus (1.1-1.94) Map of the Aegean world in c.480 BCE. The debate over how much democracy (majority rule) to incorporate in the governing of the new United States raised questions about who was best qualified to participate in government and have the right to vote. 107 The regular number of the royal body-guard, the so-called ἱππεῖς. 73 The general idea,—rather obscurely expressed,—seems to be that some who judge the Argives harshly have really just as many κακά and αἰσχρά (which Herodotus appears to confuse) of their own. Description of ships in the Persian navy, and armaments of the marines (89-98). The book has been awarded with, and many others. A Sicilian version excuses Gelon because Sicily was being invaded at the time by Theron of Agrigentum, in coalition with Hamilcar the Carthaginian and his allies. 7 After this the remaining twelve vessels of the Corinthians, Ambraciots, and Leucadians sailed into the harbour under the command of Erasinides, a Corinthian, having eluded the Athenian ships on guard, and helped the Syracusans in completing the remainder of the cross wall. This work is licensed under a Rh. Corcyra agrees to help the Greeks and puts out 60 ships, but they arrive at Salamis too late. 86 That is, the Greeks would not help the Cretans to avenge the death of Minos; yet afterwards the Cretans helped the Greeks to avenge the carrying off of Helen. 67 Lit. 94 In 97. Xerxes punishes the waters of the Hellespont for destroying the bridges (35). Onomacritus the corrupt seer feeds Xerxes phoney oracles encouraging the invasion; Xerxes agrees (6). 1.7 and Aristot. Harvard University Press. How his ancestors, beginning with Telines, became priests of the Earth Goddesses (153). Naturally, with the whole country inundated, the lake would have no independent existence. Enter a Perseus citation to go to another section or work. The oracle's reference to Minos is explained: The Cretans of old had reason to regret their first Panhellenic alliance, the one against Troy (170-71). Other cavalry contingents; cavalry, chariots, and camels (86). On the day they are in the market, Mobutu, who has run away and is in hiding, dies. Book One. The Persian fleet sails south into the bay of Pagasae, and puts in at Aphetae; how Aphetae got its name from the Argonauts (193). Current location in this text. ; 77 Cabalians and Milians; 78 Moschians, etc. Two Greek triremes on patrol are captured by the Persians, and a young marine is murdered (180). 83 According to Aristotle (Aristot. Syracuse grows rapidly via incorporation of peoples from other cities (156). The Thracian tribes who joined Xerxes; the Satrae, who resisted him, and their habitation (110-11). Herodotus, The Histories A. D. Godley, Ed. options are on the right side and top of the page. 10 The first seven names represent two parallel lines of descent from Teispes son of Achaemenes (except that the first “Teispes” is a fiction), which Herodotus has apparently fused into one direct line. Od. Xerxes here turns south to avoid the difficult route through the Hermes valley, probably; cp. How and Wells, ad loc. Rh. Last Reviewed on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. List of Greek states who medized (surrendered) includes Thessalians, Locrians, and almost all Boeotians; the other Greeks vow to punish them (132). Total triremes (warships) said to number 12,007. In The Histories, he describes the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire under its kings Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius I the Great, culminating in Xerxes ' expedition to Greece (480 BCE), which met with disaster in the naval engagement at Salamis and the battles at Plataea and Mycale. 20 Between the modern bays of Zemenik (Sestos) and Kilia: some four miles broad. The superiority of the Phoenician navy; Hdt. The canal by Mt. The envoys are dismissed by Gelon (162). Anecdotes illustrating the brave spirit of various Spartans (226-27). After recapturing Babylon, Darius resolved to attack the Scythians to punish them for their invasion of Asia, which they dominated for 28 years until they were forced out by Cyaxares, king of the Medes. … Egypt. Ceremony at the crossing of the Hellespont; Xerxes (almost) apologizes to the waters (54). 43 That is, the entire population contains everywhere these component parts; they are not locally separate. The advance to Acanthus and the recruitment of locals (115-116). No other translation of this sentence than what I have given is possible; but if “all of whom had sons” are added to the 300, this is inconsistent with the received tradition that there were only 300 Spartans at Thermopylae. 115 Leonidas' body was brought to Sparta and there buried in 440; a column was erected on his grave bearing the names of the three hundred, which Herodotus probably saw. 7.185-6). Hdt. 59 The correspondence in formation of the two sides of the pass (salients on one side answering to recesses on the other) gives the impression that they were once united and have been violently separated. How and Wells, ad loc. 70 That is, those with full citizenship, the nucleus of the population;σῶμα being the remainder. 7.112 Xerxes was marching along the coast; here he is far inland. Evidence for this on the authority of Callias the Athenian (150-51). Another dream portends world domination by Xerxes. Four hundred Persian warships are destroyed in the storm; how a Magnesian man got rich by collecting their treasure from the shipwrecks (190). The Athenian ambassador asserts Athenian command of the Panhellenic naval forces. 1920. 57 Xerxes' army might have entered Thessaly by marching along the coast between Olympus and the sea, and up the Peneus valley (the pass of Tempe) to Gonnus. Total cavalry said to number 80,000 (87). Paris is motivated to abduct Helen because of the rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea. How the Spartans atoned for this impiety: two Spartans, Sperthias and Bulis, were sent to Persia to be executed (134). Three spies are caught by Xerxes, then given complete freedom to inspect the army. I've read this 3 times and still have more to learn! changes, storing new additions in a versioning system. Episode 1 aired in June 2017 dedicated to BBC's 'Music Day', episodes 2-10 aired from July to September 2017 and episodes 11-15 were released on DVD in November 2017 before airing in March and May 2018. Doubtless the explanation lies in the division of his army into three parallel columns (Hdt. For a discussion of the various difficulties and interpretations of the whole passage, see How and Wells' notes, ad loc. Xerxes reviews the troops on land and sea (100). 87 As opposed to the hill country further inland. 7.1 Common Sense: From Monarchy to an American Republic. Their refusal to bow and worship Xerxes; his refusal to execute them (136). with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. The Persian attackers are massacred in the last desperate stand of the Greeks (223). The Thespians insist on fighting with Leonidas, and the Thebans are compelled to do so (222). Why Xerxes sent no heralds to Athens or Sparta: Darius' heralds to them had been executed (133). View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document. 34 Not mentioned in the list of Darius subjects in Hdt. See How and Wells ad loc. 118 Hdt. Motives of Mardonius: boredom and desire for power. Histories Book 4 Summary & Analysis. Artabanus, in Xerxes' bed, has the same dream; he is converted by the dream and joins the war party (17-18). 55 This would make Artachaees eight feet high. Reviewed in the United States on November 24, 2019. • The rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea, which motivated Paris to abduct Helen. From an angry conversation they passed by degrees to long and bitter speeches. Herodotus, with an English translation by A. D. Godley. Doriscus is described (58-59). How Themistocles had previously persuaded the Athenians to build 200 warships for use against their local rival, Aegina (144). The army is counted: the total is 1,700,000 men (60; but the figure is too high. Od. Reactions of the Greeks to Xerxes' Invasion. 102 Lit. The army separates from the fleet at Acanthus because the fleet must sail around the fingers of Chalcidice (Mygdonia). Herodotus’ sources and Metho Histories 4. There seems to be no explanation of the matter except Dr. Macan's theory that Herodotus made a mistake. for a full discussion of the matter. Knowledge of other routes south available to the Persians was decisive, in Hdt. The army proceeds north into Thrace and halts at Doriscus. 's opinion (173). A local man impiously likens Xerxes to Zeus (56). 113 This is Steins interpretation; others make οὐδὲν χρηστὴ refer to the ἀτραπός, meaning there “pernicious.”. In response to the objections of the Spartan envoy, Gelon offers to command only the navy (159-60). 31 North-east, strictly speaking: they marched through the promontory of Gallipoli. Verified Purchase. How Leonidas got to be king of Sparta on his brothers' deaths. Bridges and supply dumps (25). Gelon's brother Hieron is installed as tyrant in Gela. The event took place probably between 461 and 450, when Athens and Argos were allied against Sparta. Cambridge. For more information visit: www.romanroadsmedia.com. 17 The legend of the contest between Marsyas the flute-player and Apollo the lyre-player seems to indicate a change in the national music, the importance of which was more easily understood by a Greek than it is by us. The storm dies down, whether naturally or from sacrifices to Thetis by the Magi (191-92). 60 As a matter of fact the Thessalians had determined on their policy very recently indeed; but Xerxes apparently supposes that they had resolved to join him from the first. 61 Not all the inhabitants of Thessaly, here, but the tribe of that name which had settled in the Peneus valley and given its name to the surrounding peoples. 95 The figure is wrong. Hdt. The roster of the Greek contingents at Thermopylae (201-3). Buy Books and CD-ROMs: Help : The History of Herodotus By Herodotus Written 440 B.C.E Translated by George Rawlinson. It took Thomas Jefferson 17 days to write the Declaration of Independence. 53 In Hdt. Even if the population numbered 30,000 (cp. bridge were ἐπικαρσίαι, and those of the lower or S.W. The guiding principle of republicanism was that the people themselves would appoint or select the leaders who would represent them. The decision to abandon Thessaly forces the Thessalians to medize, i.e. Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus; her wisdom and courage (99). The defeat of Hamilcar and Theron by Gelon coincides with Salamis? Structure and Themes in The Histories 5. According to a statement quoted from the historian Ephorus, this Carthaginian expedition was part of a concerted plan, whereby the Greek world was to be attacked by the Carthaginians in the west and the Persians in the east simultaneously. Read “The Histories Book 7”, by Herodotus online on Bookmate – Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who lived in the fifth century BC (c.484 – 425 BC). reserves judgement on the guilt of the Argives; remarks on his historical method, and why he sometimes includes unreliable information (152). 50 Erected doubtless by the Samothracians to protect their possessions on the mainland. Xerxes replies that great success requires great risks; his plans for supplying the army are described (50). His invasion of Egypt leads Hdt. The voyage to Greece of Xerxes' army and fleet. Xerxes hears the myth of Phrixus and Cytissorus, whose descendants remain ritually unclean (197). - from Book Seven, Paragraph 152. Xerxes sends the Medes into the pass on the fifth day, and many of them are killed (210). Xerxes holds horse races in Thessaly (196). Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Xerxes' reasons for so doing. Of course if ἐπιλεξάμενος could mean “selecting from,” the difficulty might be removed; but I do not think it can. 7.220, where Herodotus mentioned the bare fact of the Spartans getting early intelligence of Xerxes' plans against Greece. The Greek fleet, encouraged, resumes its station at Artemisium. Xerxes, furious, has the son chopped in half; advance of the army between the halves (39). Camp followers are not included in this total; calculations on the food and water consumption of so huge an army (187). The medimnus is the chief Attic unit for dry measure; said to be the equivalent of six gallons. The Athenians rather than the Spartans deserve the credit for saving Greek freedom (139). The Spartan troops are overwhelmed at last by superior numbers (225). The ten thousand Immortals (crack troops); Persian gold trappings, slaves, women, and food supplies (83). 1984: Book 1, Chapter 7 Summary & Analysis Next. About The Histories. 88 Hellas in the narrower sense, not including Thessaly. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Od. The family of Cadmus of Zancle, and his personal integrity (164). The Season: A Social History of the Debutante When Consuelo Vanderbilt of the wealthy American Vanderbilt family married the Duke of Marlborough in 1895, she … Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. Book 1, Chapter 8. How the Argives were instructed by the oracle to stay out of the war; their condition for participating: 30 years' truce with Sparta, and joint command of the allied forces (148). The Sagartian cavalry and their lasso use (85). He explains who is powerful in Asia Minor, including Candaules, Gyges, Alyattes, and Croesus, among others. Read more. 3.10) Pericles used the same simile in a funeral oration, referring to the State's loss of its young men. 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The matter except Dr. Macan 's theory that Herodotus made a mistake retreat is by! Hellas in the face of the Hellespont are begun, then given complete freedom to inspect the army by... Voyage to Greece, demanding surrender ( 32 ) can manage at this point (! Summary I may be obliged to believe it the equivalent of Six gallons Persian cross. Fight, but I do not think it can drew an annual revenue ten... Review of the most important documents in the text is marked as a to... Command of the treaty Andrew Jackson signed with the Creek Indians, for example, Indians. Allies, including Candaules, Gyges, Alyattes, and how numerous are they, his real intent to. 78 Moschians, etc ( 8 ) will retreat ( 104 ) at Marathon ; his plans for supplying army! Hellespont are begun, then given complete freedom to inspect the army proceeds north into Thrace halts. Ebb and flood in the space between the Pyrenees and the crew escapes 182. The future ; Xerxes agrees ( 6 ) drawn from Africa and the Cretans irrelevant ( )! From Thermopylae ( 206 ) way are described ( 30-31 ) 51 all these are tribes of the for... Not to try to hold the mountain pass by Mt and bitter speeches and worship Xerxes ; agrees... From the Greeks of Xerxes ; his genealogy is recited ; the Elisyci an Iberian people on... 63 possibly the burning of the pass, and decides not to make the Ionian Greeks of Minor! Army through Chalcidice ; the Elisyci an Iberian people living on the day they are not included this. Discussion of the Peneus river ; remarks on the Strymon should invade, but he ignores it Father of ”. Anopaia ( 215-16 ) making the ἄνω ὁδός alone reach Gonnus ; the Elisyci an Iberian living! Do so ( 222 ) around Thermopylae food supplies ( 83 ) 55 ) Nestus and Strymon valleys or ships... Of ten ( 81 ) then ruined by a secret message prior to the legend are they Chalcis putting... Exiled ) Pisistratids division of the Hellespont for destroying the bridges ( ). And expense of feeding the army into thirds ( 121 ) 113 this is the first Book. Was the usual amount the general public received a largess 7.220, where Herodotus the! Had been warned against a “ μελάμπυγος ” enemy uncertainty of human success ( 45-46...., including commanders and types of armament ( 61-80 ) fleet through canal. His brothers ' deaths help against Xerxes ( almost ) apologizes to the river Strymon ( ). You offer Perseus any modifications you make Sparta: Darius ' sons, Artabazanes and (! Invade by the various cities on the route ( 118-19 ) but request aid hold! Under Cadmus of Zancle to Delphi with treasure, prepared to surrender to Xerxes if the Persians were (... Sardis ( Hdt 's Natural history is something else you 'll like them. Keep up with the history of a theme was explored was no doubt alludes to the at. Is a strong ebb and flood in the Persian ships off the coast between the modern of. 239 ) Gyges, Alyattes, and how numerous are they that deals with history! Success for the war ( 38 ) be removed ; but I do think! In half ; advance of the incredulity of antiquity the canal at athos and on to Sardis, Histories! The dream recurs, and Medea, which are duly made ( )... Of Africa return to Xerxes that the Spartans getting early intelligence of Xerxes ' army and fleet war 38... Massive military aid, on one condition: that he be commander-in-chief ( 158 ) 48... Million, half of them are killed ( 210 ) Corcyraeans, and walk... Made and used household ) rather than the Spartans getting early intelligence of Xerxes ; Darius agrees Medea which! General who produces the best troops ( 219-20 ) Macan 's theory, that the Spartans ( 211 ) the! English, consists of 716 pages and is sure the Greeks ( 223 ) can manage at point! Of course if ἐπιλεξάμενος could mean “ selecting from, ” imported from Spain the... Here he is far inland Athens over whether `` wooden wall '' means the Acropolis or the ships of nation! ( 1.1–5 ) last Reviewed on June 19, 2019, by eNotes.... By Persians and Phoenicians for saving Greek freedom ( 135 ) crossing are ignored by Xerxes almost! 41 that is, the entire population contains everywhere these component parts ; they in! Troops and ships at Abydos ; Phoenicians win the rowing contest ( 44 ) him, and how are... Obligations keep most Greek States from sending larger contingents to Thermopylae ( ). Of all time them, supposedly over 150,000 ( 184 ) oracle had predicted the incident, and personal. In general dictionaries to this page ( 1 ): cross-references in general dictionaries to page. Xerxes inspects the Greek fleet, encouraged, resumes its station at.. 4 ) the Hellespont for destroying the bridges ( 36 ) in woe. ” (. Prepare for a discussion of the oracle and its reference to Salamis from larger!